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Apple's "fragmentation" chart says more about iOS than Android

Posted: , by Michael H.

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*Writer's note: I started this article last Friday, when Apple first released the image in question. I had hoped to be able to add a new chart to the Apple section which showed more accurately the fragmentation of the iOS device ecosystem. I had asked Chitika to run numbers for me, but as I was told "big data is a tricky thing", and the data has been delayed until next week. But, I didn't want to delay this article anymore. The points all still stand, but I'm sorry I don't have the fancy chart to go along with it. 

Last Friday, Apple released the image that it used during its Worldwide Developers Conference keynote to "prove" that there was no fragmentation in iOS compared to the "problem" with Android. Of course, this is the narrative that Apple wants, and it is maddening how often this argument keeps popping up, and how often the media runs with the flashy headline rather than explaining the issue as it is. The fact of the matter is that Apple's chart doesn't prove anything, all it does is mislabel the argument, and hide the real issues with iOS. 

I have written at length before about how silly it is to lump together the various issues that face Android under the heading of "fragmentation", and even worked to rid our website of using the inappropriate term. I've also written about the issues facing iOS, and how Apple is more than a little hypocritical to be calling out Android on these issues. The truth is that there are issues on both platforms, and in both cases, they are issues that plague developers more than they cause any trouble for consumers.

The truth behind the Android platform distribution chart

Apple's "fragmentation" chart says more about iOS than Android

The chart that Apple has released is the accurate Android platform distribution chart, and it does show accurately exactly what it is designed to, which is different from what Apple uses it for. The point of the Android platform distribution chart is to give developers a guide as to what API level they should use when developing an app. Each API level has certain advantages, and OS features of which developers can take advantage.

Apple took a shot at Google during its keynote calling the chart "the most ideal state of Android" because it only shows Android devices that check in with the Google Play Store. But, counting this way makes perfect sense, because once again: the chart is designed for developers. The change in the way Google counted proved that many users with older devices (Android 2.x) don't ever go to the Play Store to download apps. So, why would a developer care about users that never downloads apps?

There is obviously a user side to the chart, but it is less insidious than Apple would imply. While there is a vocal group of users who know that their devices haven't been updated to the newest version of Android, and are angry about it, the majority of users don't know or care what version of Android they have (repeat: the majority of users, not the majority of PhoneArena readers, I know that you guys are disproportionately in the know on these things.) So, there are users that don't get certain features because they don't have the newest version of Android. For example, only 33% of Android devices are on Jelly Bean, which means 64% of devices don't have Google Now.

But, as we know by now, just because you have the newest version of iOS doesn't mean that you have all the features.

The truth behind the iOS platform distribution chart

Apple has been very clear that just because you upgrade to iOS 6, you shouldn't expect to get all of the improvements, and the same will hold true for iOS 7. The trouble is that Apple doesn't release the information about device distribution in the wild. If you have an iPhone 4S, iPhone 5, iPad 3, or iPad 4, you're in luck and your device got all of the goodies included in iOS 6. However, if you have an older device, you'll be missing some key elements like Siri, turn-by-turn navigation, and FaceTime over 3G. For iOS 7, it's actually worse, because you'll only get the full range of iOS 7 features if you have an iPhone 5. Even if you have an iPad 4 or iPad mini, you won't get the Panorama feature, and iPad mini users also won't get the photo filters. 

Apple's "fragmentation" chart says more about iOS than Android
But, of course, that's just the user side of the iOS platform distribution chart. We can't fully explain the troubles for developers, because the data doesn't exist. We'll try to break it down the best we can: for iOS developers, there is little-to-no interaction between apps, and few hooks into the iOS platform itself, so the iOS version doesn't matter too much when it comes to developing an app. The iOS version does matter, but the far more important metric is screen resolution.

As it stands right now, there are five different screen resolutions in the iOS ecosystem, even when you exclude the iPhone and iPhone 3G neither of which can run iOS 6: the iPhone 3Gs is at 320x480, iPhone 4/4S are 640x960, iPhone 5 is 640x1136, iPad 2/mini are both 768x1024, and the iPad 3 and newer are 1536x2048. (This is where I had hoped to have a chart showing what proportion of the iOS ecosystem is held by the various screen resolutions, but unfortunately, that data is extremely hard to come by.) This is the real issue for developers because iOS does not do responsive design, aside from scaling down app assets made for the 640x960 screen to display on the iPhone 3Gs screen. 

This means that developers have to specifically build assets for each screen resolution, because iOS doesn't do responsive design like Android does. On Android, you build your app once, and it will scale. If you don't build it properly, it may not scale well, but it will still work. On iOS, if you don't build the assets for new devices with different screen resolutions, your app may work, but it won't look good. Apps not updated for the iPhone 5 are letterboxed, "universal" apps without iPad assets run at iPhone size, and lower-res assets on a Retina display look a bit fuzzy compared to properly updated apps. All of this leads to pressure to developers to upgrade apps, but it also causes more work for developers, and inconsistent UI of apps on various devices. 

Conclusion

As I have argued in the past, it isn't that there are no problems with Android, but calling every problem "fragmentation" confuses the issue and places blame in the wrong place. Android has problems with slow updates, which is partially due to Google not making it easier for manufacturers to customize without needing to mess with the system layer itself, and partially due to manufacturers having limited resources to support too many devices, and carriers having absurdly long testing phases. Of course, except for a small, but vocal minority, most users don't really care what version of Android they are using, because the apps still work. Android has issues with apps not scaling well to tablets, but that is a problem with developers not building apps properly. The tools are there, and the users are there as well. Calling it all "fragmentation" makes it sound like all the problems are issues that Google should be able to fix alone. 

On the other hand, the term "fragmentation" works far better for the iOS ecosystem, because Apple controls everything from top to bottom, so if there is a problem, Apple would be the one to fix it. Apple is constantly retiring devices, but that doesn't make them disappear from use. And, just as often, Apple is adding new devices with a higher resolution screen, or different aspect ratio, which causes "fragmentation" problems for developers, because Apple doesn't update the development tools to include responsive design options. Each new upgrade adds new features, but Apple doesn't allow all new features on older devices, so there are "fragmentation" problems for users. The best Apple can say is that most of the userbase has the newest security updates, but if Apple wants to toss around accusations of "fragmentation", it works best if there are no such issues with iOS. Apple can hide them with incomplete charts, but as the saying goes, "People in glass houses shouldn't throw stones."

59 Comments
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posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:02 1

1. ihatesmartphone (unregistered)


Key Lime Pie is the solution for fragmentation on Android :D

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:08 12

3. Mxyzptlk (Posts: 3224; Member since: 21 Apr 2012)


That's what ICS was supposed to be for.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:38 4

12. darkkjedii (Posts: 10122; Member since: 05 Feb 2011)


Exactly. Frag isn't going away, as long as hardware limits what can be ran on said device.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 18:41 3

47. taz89 (Posts: 2009; Member since: 03 May 2011)


Google are tackling "fragmentation" just not by getting is updates but through api levels and putting all there core apps on the play store..Google introduced Google play services so regardless what os you are on you can usually get new features same goes with getting there core apps on the play store..over the years they have taken there system apps like gmail maps and recently the keyboard out of the os and put it into the play store so more people are likely to get new features etc without having to wait for an os update..think of it this way if apple want to update there email,keyboard,maps or app store etc they have to do a OS update where as if Google want to do the same thing its all done through the play store...both have fragmentation but of different types.. Google has fragmentation of what build of android people are on and imo iOS has fragmentation of what features are available on what...just recently Google added new features to Google now via an app update but cannot just update siri via an app update... Neither solutions perfect but don't think its an "apples to apples" comparison the way apple likes to suggest it is.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:38 13

14. protozeloz (Posts: 5369; Member since: 16 Sep 2010)


Not at all ICS united tablet and phone UI into a single thing... But then again you already knew that

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 10:25 1

25. roldefol (Posts: 2858; Member since: 28 Jan 2011)


ICS was never going to end fragmentation, because not all extant devices were capable of running it (similar to iPhone 3G not getting iOS 6). And if they didn't have the resources for it, manufacturers only updated their most popular/most recent devices.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 10:37 1

28. icyrock1 (Posts: 301; Member since: 25 Mar 2013)


Actually, I think that them updating key apps outside of new releases (music, books, play, etc) is there plan to ease "fragmentation". They can bypass the carrier and manufacturers and update phones that way.

posted on 28 Jun 2013, 00:02

51. joey_sfb (Posts: 2565; Member since: 29 Mar 2012)


Mxyzptlk is just a troll for Apple Inc.

posted on 28 Jun 2013, 09:51

55. roldefol (Posts: 2858; Member since: 28 Jan 2011)


Apple wouldn't stoop that low. He's just a troll.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:13 18

5. MichaelHeller (Posts: 2650; Member since: 26 May 2011)


And, there's the first person to miss the point on the Android side...

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:17 7

10. exsymbian (Posts: 6; Member since: 22 Mar 2013)


KLP wont solve anything. Google should enforce manufacturers to provide at least two incremental android updates for their products.,

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:07 3

2. AppleHateBoy (unregistered)


Michael. You are my hero.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:15 1

8. abcdefgh (banned) (Posts: 471; Member since: 29 Mar 2013)


people with glass house should not play ANGRY BIRDS BAD PIGGIES
lol.XD

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:39 1

15. darkkjedii (Posts: 10122; Member since: 05 Feb 2011)


You're gonna get yourself limited with the spamming dude

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:16 9

9. SellPhones82 (Posts: 474; Member since: 11 Dec 2008)


Great read Michael! I always found it funny that Apple allowed older devices to "upgrade" to a newer OS version, minus most of the the key new features, yet call out Android for fragmentation. So I guess Google should just remove Google Now and Project Butter from JB and then release it to the older non-supported phones and then fragmentation would be gone! Well, at least according to Apple it would...

posted on 28 Jun 2013, 00:04 1

52. joey_sfb (Posts: 2565; Member since: 29 Mar 2012)


Well said!

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:21 2

11. SonyXperiaNexus (Posts: 374; Member since: 01 Oct 2012)


Plzzzzz add that resolution chart as a separate article if you get it, i wanna see it. BTW awesome article michael, your effort really shows.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:46 3

18. MichaelHeller (Posts: 2650; Member since: 26 May 2011)


If Chitika can get the info (which is hard to generate in the first place), I hope to be able to have that chart in the next couple weeks or so.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 17:47 1

45. roscuthiii (Posts: 1785; Member since: 18 Jul 2010)


Careful... might get slapped with a libel lawsuit.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:38 1

13. speckledapple (Posts: 877; Member since: 29 Sep 2011)


Well written Michael. I enjoy reading insightful articles such as this. Its not about fanboys just about the facts of the matter. I think iOS is a strong OS and Apple certainly has done a great job making sure it is the beast they want it to be. But it has its problems as well and fragmentation is one of many. Though just as Android has its own issues, much of it on either os comes down to developers.

As you said, there are all kinds of tools to create a better experience for users and they need to do that. Developers need to step it up.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:49 1

21. JunkCreek (Posts: 399; Member since: 13 Jul 2012)


but apple doesn't make that tool to their devs. devs must make all apps and games specifically for each device. and it is harder task to do than testing the apps and games for different hardwares and chips.

apple devs must built it from the scratch again while on android the devs can only edit here and there then add it to the manifest.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:41

16. JunkCreek (Posts: 399; Member since: 13 Jul 2012)


yes, i thought about it also. i always wonder how suffer the devs builds apps and games for even ip3 and ip3gs and ip4/s and ip5 and also ipad2, 3 and 4. while on android, the devs could just attach graphics files for low, mid and high res.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:43

17. Telemike (Posts: 2; Member since: 30 Nov 2012)


What Google needs to do and I think I read they are doing this...is to make core components of the Android OS updatable from the Play store rather than from the Carrier. IF Google can somehow separate all the carrier related radio stuff from the Core OS, then updates to the OS should be faster and easier bypassing the Carrier.

posted on 28 Jun 2013, 08:32

53. kabhijeet.16 (Posts: 627; Member since: 05 Dec 2012)


Google is actually doing this.. Releasing all core apps one by one into Play Store. Latest examples are proprietary Keyboard, Camera app, etc.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:47

19. rantao333 (Posts: 194; Member since: 21 May 2013)


and yet, i found myself crash most of the time with android apps....

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:57

22. JunkCreek (Posts: 399; Member since: 13 Jul 2012)


buy htc, huawei, lg or motorolla..you get some incompactible if using samsung device. you can't even make swap your internal "sdcard" storage to real sdcard so you can get larger storage. but for 2-8gb "sdcard" internal storage, i think it is enough for us to install almost any apps and games. but if you only had 512mb, you'd feel the ass in the pain... :p

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 17:01

43. -box- (Posts: 3714; Member since: 04 Jan 2012)


I have an HTC (it's sat dormant since my wife got a GS3) and both crash and freeze with disappointing frequency.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:48 1

20. spideyhead256 (Posts: 148; Member since: 05 Nov 2012)


Lol love the thumbnail micheal.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 09:58 2

23. MichaelHeller (Posts: 2650; Member since: 26 May 2011)


Thanks! (side note: it's spelled Michael.)

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 10:37

27. spideyhead256 (Posts: 148; Member since: 05 Nov 2012)


sorry michael didn't pay attention!

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 10:21 2

24. roldefol (Posts: 2858; Member since: 28 Jan 2011)


Michael, great analysis as usual. When I heard about the laundry list of iOS 7 features that would not be useable on the iPhone 4 (which will still be sold until September), it became much clearer where the real fragmentation is. Unfortunately these outdated misconceptions (iOS is the most stable, there is no iOS fragmentation, Android is fragmented, Android is laggy, WP has no apps nor games) take years to dispel.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 11:19 2

37. MichaelHeller (Posts: 2650; Member since: 26 May 2011)


People are inherently lazy, and re-evaluating preconceptions is hard work. I just try to make the process easier.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 18:00

46. roscuthiii (Posts: 1785; Member since: 18 Jul 2010)


That and it's hard to get past the natural human inclination towards an Us vs Them mentality predicated on the whole, "What I choose is both inherently & virtuously right and therefore anyone that chooses similar to me is also right, but so help me from smiting all you heathenous blasphemers for going against me by choosing something different!"

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 18:53

48. taz89 (Posts: 2009; Member since: 03 May 2011)


I have been saying this forever since Google released Google play services its been so obvious that putting there core apps in the play store and using Google play services to introduce new features like game sync,achievements etc is googles way of updating android without updating the actual is number...soon it will be irrelevant what version of android you are as most features will be added via apps and Google play services..Google been separating there apps from the os and done this most recently with the Google stock keyboard and already doing it with gmail,maps,music etc and am pretty sure soon the stock camera, peoples and messaging will be available on the play store too. So when new features etc are addes , you won't need the latest update ,just an update via play store and behind the scene updates via play services will be enough...apple can claim they have the most users with the the latest update but imo that don't mean much if they can't experience the newest features. When apple before iOS 7 updated, they added features to mail,safari or siri etc and called it a new OS, Google do the same on a regular basis adding features to Google now ,chrome etc all via an app..I know which I prefer.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 10:26

26. sats.mine2k4 (banned) (Posts: 208; Member since: 10 Aug 2012)


Excellent article... Thank you Mike.
However, i still have one question...
You say screen resolution is the major parameter, now just going by that... an app designed for iphone5 will render full screen (atleast vertically) on an ipad2... which i think is not the case.. so does the DPI also come into picture?

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 11:17 1

35. MichaelHeller (Posts: 2650; Member since: 26 May 2011)


DPI and screen resolution are essentially two sides of the same coin, but DPI is more a concern for websites, but I'm talking more about apps.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 10:42

29. Napalm_3nema (Posts: 822; Member since: 14 Jun 2013)


I guess I missed the announcement to welcome Phone Arena's Google Apologist-In Residence. Welcome, Michael. Your blind defense of Google, no matter the situation, will play well with most of the base.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 11:14 6

31. MichaelHeller (Posts: 2650; Member since: 26 May 2011)


Always nice to be called a Google Apologist after laying out all of the problems with Android...

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 11:40 4

39. roldefol (Posts: 2858; Member since: 28 Jan 2011)


When you criticize Google (your own preferred mobile OS), you're being honest. When you criticize someone else's preferred OS, you're trolling or being a Google apologist. You can't win with fanboys, but I give you points for trying.

posted on 28 Jun 2013, 09:56

56. SellPhones82 (Posts: 474; Member since: 11 Dec 2008)


He just call 'em how he sees 'em and that why I continue to come here! Someone sounds a little butt-hurt that a person would dare say something negative about Apple or iOS. You must not come to this site very often do you? There are plenty of site on the web that will do nothing but praise Apple no matter what they do, you might want to frequent those sites instead.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 11:04

30. ilia1986 (unregistered)


Awesome article, Michael. It's also extremely pleasant to see the iPhoneArena of 2011 and 2012 becoming PhoneArena this year (come on, don't deny that there wasn't a lot of pro-apple bias on this site coming from writers, on those years. Bias which thankfully seems to be gone by now). :)

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 11:15 1

33. MichaelHeller (Posts: 2650; Member since: 26 May 2011)


I didn't start here until late 2011, but I have to say, I didn't see a bias in our writing so much as the readership. When I started, most of our readers were mostly Apple fans, and that has now shifted towards our readership being mostly Android fans.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 11:21

38. ilia1986 (unregistered)


Believe me it was bad. Really bad. But I'm just happy to see things change on this website. Nowadays it seems the fanboy war is Samsung vs Sony vs HTC...

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 11:43 1

40. roldefol (Posts: 2858; Member since: 28 Jan 2011)


I was here in 2010-2011. It wasn't much better or worse than now, except now there is a crapton more Galaxy S coverage, which to a non-fan could seem like bias. And both then and now, Michael wrote the most insightful pieces.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 11:49

41. ilia1986 (unregistered)


Yes he did. Mostly. I am talking about other editors primarily.

posted on 28 Jun 2013, 16:59

58. Dadler22 (Posts: 161; Member since: 11 Dec 2008)


its the two year contract refresh period michael. LOL

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 11:16

34. Napalm_3nema (Posts: 822; Member since: 14 Jun 2013)


You mean that you're glad they are pro-Android now.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 11:18 7

36. MichaelHeller (Posts: 2650; Member since: 26 May 2011)


The news is dominated by Android. We don't make the news, we just report it.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 15:37 1

42. quakan (Posts: 1140; Member since: 02 Mar 2011)


Maybe you should go back and find the PA article about bias. It clearly spells out the bias lies within PA's users and not so much the writers. I thought that anyways from the start but it was nice to see PA speak out about it. The iPhonearena was BS from the start.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 17:18 1

44. MichaelHeller (Posts: 2650; Member since: 26 May 2011)


Hey! That sounds like something I wrote!

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 18:57 1

49. roldefol (Posts: 2858; Member since: 28 Jan 2011)


More importantly, you carried on a whole conversation about it in the comments. I respect you for "rolling up your sleeves" so to speak and wading into the messy, fanboy-infested waters to try and get us thinking. It's easy enough to post a review or an op-ed, but not every author here responds when people have reasonable critiques of their work.

posted on 28 Jun 2013, 10:26

57. snowgator (Posts: 3188; Member since: 19 Jan 2011)


I have been here since October of 2010, and yes the readership was, and continues to be, the source for most any bias. There are exceptions, but come on- the writers have beliefs too. They wouldn't be fighting to do this for a living if they didn't.

Right now, Android dominates the marketshare and the hearts and minds of most posters. Apple has had it's day, but now only a few die hards are left standing. I agree with roldefol @ comment #40- a lot more brand bias creeping in these days.

I have a few WP fans with me... need some BlackBerry fans back on this site to keep everything interesting.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 11:15 1

32. Arpad (Posts: 39; Member since: 05 Jan 2012)


This cleared up allot for me! Thanks for the article.
To bad that it's harder to find data on IOs devices.

posted on 27 Jun 2013, 19:38 1

50. jroc74 (Posts: 4720; Member since: 30 Dec 2010)


All I know is its funny Apple and their fans throw the F word at Android, when iOS has its own version of the F word...

posted on 28 Jun 2013, 09:11 1

54. crazymonkey05 (Posts: 120; Member since: 20 Nov 2012)


Well apple is clearly doing stuff wrong and so is Google but they also have their advantages like apple has a HUGE fan populous that will follow them blindly.....and Google has developers that create amazing things like cyanogenmod and aokp.....I know that sounds biased but its true! What are some things that apple accels at that android devices haven't already had? A little i in front of their name? Anyways that's my view on things and good job Michael on a wonderfully read and sparking a fanboy war

posted on 29 Jun 2013, 23:41

59. Xenaz (Posts: 88; Member since: 28 Apr 2013)


Well written analysis, Apple is slowly killing itself by its greed who intends to control and dominate almost every aspect of their smartphone, from software (IOS limitation and etc.) to hardware (lighting adapter and etc.), but Apple's great success in marketing will still able to save Apple for a while, I guess.

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