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The Google Android fork: Google Play services, Android 4.4, and the Nexus Experience

Posted: , by Michael H.

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The Google Android fork: Google Play services, Android 4.4, and the Nexus Experience
Let's get one thing clear right off the bat - Google creates Android, but Android is not Google. The base layer of Android is open source and can be used by anyone for anything. As such, we've seen Android be forked by companies like Amazon, Xiaomi, and Baidu for use on smartphones; and, the platform has been forked by companies like OUYA for use in other market segments like gaming. I'd like to put forward an idea here: the most commonly used version of Android is actually a fork by Google itself.

The term "stock Android" is something of a misnomer, because pure stock Android would be the plain open source base layer that doesn't include any Google services. We know that there is a disconnect between Android's open source base and the Google layer of services that is built into the majority of consumer Android devices, although we often don't see that Google layer that much because of manufacturer skins. Underneath those skins is where you'll find the hidden-in-plain-sight fork of Android that Google has been building both to combat the various problems that get wrongly packaged under the dreaded term of fragmentation, but also because Google wants to be the king of its own castle. Google wants its version of Android to be the best and the canonical version of the platform, which is why the company has no problem with its version being called "stock Android" or "pure Android" despite it being heavily modified from the core system. 

Google has a three-pronged approach to its strategy focusing on software updates (Google Play services), decoupling Google Apps, and hardware (the Nexus line). 

Google Play services


Google Play services is really what makes everything Google possible on your Android device. If you were to disable Google Play services, any app that even relies on a Google App to function would break. But the purpose of Google Play services goes well beyond that, because Play services is a system-level app that is automatically updated in the background by Google. In this way, Play services has become Google's answer to carriers and manufacturers being slow at pushing Android OS updates, because the software is updated automatically with no manufacturer modifications, no carrier slowdown, and no options for users to simply ignore the update altogether. 

The Google Android fork: Google Play services, Android 4.4, and the Nexus Experience
A reader recently pointed out that there isn't much difference between Android 4.1 and Android 4.3 except for a few minor updates, and to an extent that is true (which is also why all three updates have been incremental version number bumps and all three are kept under the Jelly Bean name.) In general, Google has been shifting away from putting all of the major updates into the Android OS itself and has instead been pushing updates through Google Play services and Google Apps. As you can see in the chart to the right, there really isn't much left in the Android system core. 

Most features and apps that we tend to think of as part of the "pure Android experience" are Google add-ons that have been decoupled from the main system. Just look at the major features of Android 4.1+, it includes mostly performance fixes (Project Butter), and one major feature (Google Now) which was actually just an update to the Google Search app. The reason for doing it this way is that with Google Play services, the updates get pushed to almost the entire ecosystem without more than a couple weeks delay. For example, according to the latest numbers Jelly Bean is on 49% of Android devices, and the newest version of Android 4.3 is on just 1.5% of devices (which right now means Nexus devices and the two Google Edition devices). 

But, a far more important update was Google's Verify Apps security system, which checks apps that are being installed for malware. Verify Apps was pushed out through Google Play services, which means every Google Android device running Android 2.2 and higher received that update within a couple weeks of the rollout beginning. The Verify Apps software was then used to track actual malware installs, data which Google will be sharing with security firms, so there shouldn't be any more exaggerated malware claims that can't be verified or denied. With Verify Apps, we can see exactly what kind of damage has been done (in the Google Android ecosystem). 

Google Play services controls the Google Maps API, Google Account syncing, the new Device Manager software and remote wipe options, push notifications, Google Play Games services and much much more. The latest update to Play Services brought low-power location APIs, geofencing, and power saving improvements. These updates were pushed out to over 98% of all Android devices without manufacturer modification or carrier interference, and they add immense value to Google Android, because these updates don't show up in other forks like Amazon's FireOS. And, any app that hooks into Google Play services will not work correctly on those other forks, and may not be accepted into alternative app stores either (which puts into question Eric Schmidt's recent comments about apps working everywhere on Android.)

Decoupling Google Apps and Android 4.4 KitKat


The tag line for Android 4.4 KitKat is "to make an amazing Android experience available for everybody." One way to interpret that statement is to assume that as per rumors Android 4.4 is going to include optimizations for lower-end devices, laptops, and TVs. Another way to interpret it is that Google wants to be able to offer its own Android experience to everybody, including those who have skinned devices from other manufacturers. A big piece to this puzzle has been decoupling apps from the core Google Android package. 

The Google Android fork: Google Play services, Android 4.4, and the Nexus Experience
It began with apps like Gmail, Maps, and YouTube, so that Google would be able to push updates to the apps more easily than if it all came as part of the Android OS update. Since then, Google has continued to decouple apps, and has even started to do the same with pieces that had been considered part of the open source Android base like the keyboard. There are rumors going around that Google may be about to do the same with the camera app and even the Android launcher along with the release of Android 4.4. 

If this turns out to be true, this could be a big shift in how Android is built. The possibility of a "Google Experience Launcher" being released into the Play Store would have a couple major consequences. First, it would mean Google could add more deeply integrated Google services into the launcher itself, because it would no longer be part of the open source base. That would mean the cool concept we saw for Android 5.0 with Google Now built into the notification tray could actually become a reality. This kind of decoupling would also mean that it could become very easy for any user to essentially set up the Google Experience for themselves on any device. 

Imagine having a Samsung Galaxy Note 3, and being able to install the Google launcher in addition to Google Calendar and everything else. Sure, the Samsung bloat would still be there, and there are alternative launchers like Nova that simulate the stock Google experience, but Google knows how to add value to its apps. Obviously, power users may still opt for rooting and flashing a custom ROM in order to get rid of the Samsung bloat, but having the standard Google options available in the Play Store would be great for more casual users who want a change. And, of course there will always still be the Nexus route.

The Nexus Experience


One of the original aims of the Google Nexus line of devices was to offer a reference device for developers. The appeal of the Nexus line has expanded, and with it has the scope of what Google wants to put forth with the devices. The Nexus line has moved away from pushing hardware features that Google would like to see in more Android devices, and has moved more towards showing off the Google Experience available for Android. 

The Google Android fork: Google Play services, Android 4.4, and the Nexus Experience
Neither the Nexus 4 smartphone or the Nexus 7 tablet have looked to push the boundaries of hardware in their respective form factors, but each is aiming to get the pure Google Experience into the hands of as many people as possible with a very aggressive price point. The Nexus 10 pushed a bit on hardware with its 2048x1536 QXGA display, but more than that the Nexus 10 has tried to prove that the 10-inch market is viable on Android, which is a notion that many still wrongly don't believe. 

The Nexus Experience is more than just the Google Experience though. While it does offer Google's ideal version of Android to users with what we always call "stock Android" (in truth, stock Android would be the plain system without Google's additions, which is why I argue that Google Android is technically a fork), the Nexus devices also offer additional benefits for developers and hackers alike because the hardware is so easy to unlock and root if you would like. This has led to the Nexus line being the starting point for many interesting projects, including the Ubuntu Touch platform which only officially supports Nexus devices right now (although there is unofficial community-built support for dozens of other devices). 

Interestingly, where the Nexus line used to be the place where hardware and software features made their debut, there is growing evidence that this time around the Moto X by Google-owned Motorola has been the device that really shows off the next big feature of Android. The rumors are pointing to the Moto X's Touchless Control being the big feature addition of Android 4.4, which could add always-listening voice control for supported hardware (likely just the Snapdragon 800 to start). Of course, even if this is true, the reality will be that the update will be part of the Google Search app, which will be bundled with Android 4.4, but it won't actually be an update built-in to the core system, though it may require some under-the-hood features in Android 4.4.

Conclusion


At the end of the day, Google has not only built the most popular mobile platform in the world, but it has built one of the most compelling experiences on top of that open source core system. Android is not technically Google, but if you say Android to someone their first thought is likely to be of Google Apps and services (unless said person lives in Russia or China where non-Google Android rule the day). In most regions, and on most flagship devices regardless of the manufacturer software and skins, everything is held together by Google services. The Google Apps are what we use everyday for searching, maps, messaging, productivity, and entertainment; and, Google Play services power many of the best features of those apps. 

The Google Android fork: Google Play services, Android 4.4, and the Nexus Experience
This also makes it much more difficult for manufacturers to truly break free of Google and create a legitimate fork of Android. Amazon was able to do it by aiming at the population that care as much about the added benefits of Google Play services. Amazon built its own Appstore and started out targeting people who wanted to consume content: books, music, movies, and games. Many other features are still lagging behind in FireOS because it is so difficult for a manufacturer to copy what Google has done. This is a big reason why Samsung is being so slow and cautious in its efforts to break away from Google. Samsung can do the same as Amazon and recreate the Google Play Store, the content stores, and some other services, but big ticket items like location services that underpin so many other features are much harder to do.

Google will undoubtedly continue to decouple apps from the Android base, and in doing so it will create an easier path for software updates for those components. The most important security updates are being shifted into Google Play services, which helps to mitigate the troubles caused by slow manufacturer and carrier updates. There will still be a need for manufacturers to push updates, but it seems almost like Google has realized that is a losing battle. But, with its current strategy, there is a good chance that Google can come out on top anyway. 

image credit: Ron Amadeo

36 Comments
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posted on 14 Oct 2013, 11:04 8

1. Gulenkov (Posts: 48; Member since: 15 May 2013)


Nexus devices are the best, no doubt. Great experience, small price

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 11:42 1

5. Tommy1960i (Posts: 99; Member since: 11 Oct 2013)


Maybe not the best because of lower specs in terms of hardware. And the design is not as good as HTC One's. Samsung has better hardware, the only thing they need is a better premium feel.

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 12:37 13

10. Shatter (Posts: 2030; Member since: 29 May 2013)


Nexus 4 was top of the line specs when it came out. Nexus 5 will be close specs to a g2.

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 23:08 1

32. Luuthian (Posts: 217; Member since: 09 Sep 2011)


Depends on what you mean. Maybe the under the hood specs were fantastic, but that LCD screen is horrible in comparison to an iPhone 5, a decent AMOLED, or HTC's Super LCD 3. The battery life is also pretty sub par, and the camera has ALWAYS sucked. Few Androids have yet to achieve the fantastic battery life, screen display, or camera on Samsung or LG's recent devices.

I think the Nexus devices are beautiful in terms of their software execution. Stock Android is certainly my favorite version of the platform. Nexus devices have always had, IMO, large draw backs in their hardware though.

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 19:06 6

30. imMature (Posts: 83; Member since: 04 Sep 2013)


Helloo.. We're talking about Nexus here.. Lower specs? S4 Pro was a high end chip when it came out. 2GB of RAM, one of the earliest. The design is beautiful but the glass back is not that good.

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 19:40 1

31. CellularNinja (Posts: 303; Member since: 27 Sep 2011)


Please... I have a Nexus 10 & it's blazing fast & has one of the best 10 inch screens & it was still $100 less than the iPad... & you're gonna argue against it?

posted on 20 Oct 2013, 02:56

35. Luuthian (Posts: 217; Member since: 09 Sep 2011)


... We were talking about the Nexus 4? When did the Nexus 10 ever enter discussion? :/

posted on 15 Oct 2013, 05:29

33. Reluctant_Human (Posts: 864; Member since: 28 Jun 2012)


The Nexus had VERY good specs at release, especially for it's price. Personally, I think Motorola really proved that it's not about the specs. It's all about the design and optimization with the Moto X.

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 11:09 11

2. PapaSmurf (Posts: 8614; Member since: 14 May 2012)


Great article Michael. I prefer stock Android, but after using the new Touchwiz and Sense 5, I like some of the UI tweaks it brings. I don't see myself switching OSs anytime soon.

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 15:08 4

24. cezarepc (Posts: 575; Member since: 23 Nov 2012)


I always like Michael's articles, they are researched well and you just know that a lot of thought have been put into it. Unlike some others who just want views and clicks and churns out low quality articles with the ending coming up like "let us know what you think in the comment section" to start a crappy conversation and get some more views and clicks.

Anyway, having the stock experience in non nexus devices would be great. I currently (still!) have the Galaxy Nexus S and 1st-gen Nexus 7. Both are still great and I don't find the experience lacking in anyway (personal usage).

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 11:26 8

3. Navaid (Posts: 46; Member since: 05 Sep 2013)


Truly informative article, After a long time!

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 11:34 6

4. good2great (Posts: 1039; Member since: 22 Feb 2012)


great article.

I like what Google is doing... in a perfect "no choice for android" world it would be nice to see

-Google(Android) = Nexus
-Apple = iPhone
-Microsoft = Windows Phone

But that'll never happen...lol

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 14:33 2

19. maxican16 (Posts: 363; Member since: 29 Sep 2011)


"In a perfect "no choice for Android" world"???

I don't think you understand what Android is all about. While Nexus devices are great (currently own two), I wouldn't want there to be a lack of choice in the Android world.

posted on 31 Jan 2014, 14:41

36. jroc74 (Posts: 4936; Member since: 30 Dec 2010)


Yea...that wouldnt be perfect in my world.

Maybe in a one phone per OS only world is a better phrase. One of the things I like about Android is choice.

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 11:47 2

6. teckem (Posts: 10; Member since: 20 Nov 2012)


Am I the only one who does not care about the looks/design of the Nexus Family ?....What I really want it is to feel the best experience that Google can give me

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 11:58 1

7. Raihanpatel111 (Posts: 18; Member since: 12 Mar 2013)


No..you are not only one .....

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 12:42

12. tyger11 (Posts: 72; Member since: 29 Oct 2012)


Once you stick a case on the phone, it doesn't much matter what it looks like naked. *shrug*

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 13:03 1

13. Kitkat_4.4 (Posts: 74; Member since: 03 Sep 2013)


No you are not the only one, though google has done it's best till date to give us the best experience any OS can ever give.

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 12:06

8. ilia1986 (unregistered)


All I care about are hardware specs + device being popular enough and dev-friendly so that it warrants custom rom support for many many reasons to come. Oh, and always rocking the latest and greatest android version. :)

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 12:30

9. md227a (Posts: 126; Member since: 20 Mar 2012)


That used to be Samsung, but with Knox and locked boot loaders it is not a guarantee about custom Roms any more

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 12:38 1

11. Shatter (Posts: 2030; Member since: 29 May 2013)


Oppo is one of the best for custom roms. Also good specs, good Dev support, good quality and design

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 13:04 2

14. Kitkat_4.4 (Posts: 74; Member since: 03 Sep 2013)


But oppo is not globally available.

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 13:11

15. AliNSiddiqui (Posts: 380; Member since: 19 Sep 2012)


Nexus will always stay the best in this regard no matter how unpopular it is. Most devs simply buy the Nexus just to make ROMs on it.

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 13:28

16. Klamba92 (Posts: 203; Member since: 25 Jun 2012)


Great article, never really thought of Google being a fork on android itself, but like the new approach of getting the updates to everyone on android without updating the core system framework!

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 14:06

17. paul48 (Posts: 17; Member since: 26 Sep 2012)


I think the Nexus line, although so far giving best value, is far from ideal, in that, as others have commented in the past, Google seem to deliberately omit certain useful features that cost little or nothing to provide, which by pure coincidence, not helping advert revenue, eg. FMradio (built into all the RFchipsets, yet unconnected in Nexus phones), TV-out, expandable memory, a main camera to compete with the best. Having observed the disadvantages so far of buying a Nexus, on balance, I think still far more preferable, to the lockins to unwanted skins/apps, and glacial updates of the alternatives. I dont see it on your list, but isn't the FM Radio App part of Google Android ?

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 14:19

18. rob5150 (Posts: 120; Member since: 31 Oct 2011)


Fm radio relies on the hardware chip built in by the manufacturer.
Unless a market really shows it is worth the cost of the hardware, they're not going to put one in.
Over the air radio is almost a Dead industry in most parts.

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 14:35

20. maxican16 (Posts: 363; Member since: 29 Sep 2011)


Nice article. However, I recall seeing the Android vs Google Framework picture on Android Police.. no credit was given.

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 14:44

21. MichaelHeller (Posts: 2678; Member since: 26 May 2011)


I had seen it on a few places including Android Police and Ars Technica. I couldn't find where the original came from, so I didn't put credit.

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 15:47

25. maxican16 (Posts: 363; Member since: 29 Sep 2011)


Ron Amadeo crafted it. He used to work for AP, then moved to Ars. They're his images as far as I know. Would be best to credit him. Many of the ideas in this article are very similar to his posts as well...

https://plus.google.com/u/0/104025431341062052230/posts

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 16:18

26. MichaelHeller (Posts: 2678; Member since: 26 May 2011)


I do love Ron's work. I've added in the credit. Thanks!

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 15:01

22. Android4Ever (Posts: 86; Member since: 12 Aug 2013)


The future of Google looks very promising...

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 15:05

23. Gatman (Posts: 18; Member since: 07 Sep 2013)


Well the n5 is going to have great specs

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 17:48

27. taz89 (Posts: 2014; Member since: 03 May 2011)


Well said.. I have been saying this for a long time that with google play services and the decoupling of the apps mean fragmentation is not an issue as some people like to say. What google updates via the play store and play services apple has to do with a full os update.

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 17:54 1

28. jimv1983 (Posts: 21; Member since: 10 Oct 2013)


"stock Android would be the plain system without Google's additions"

That's ridiculous. Google adding stuff to an OS that THEY produce doesn't make it a fork. If anything HTC Sense, Samsung TouchWiz, etc are forks of Android.

posted on 14 Oct 2013, 18:05

29. konnor (Posts: 30; Member since: 25 Apr 2013)


If you're saying that "Amazon has a fork", and then implying Google is now doing it "just like Amazon", then you're wrong.

Depending on your definition of fork, it can mean anything modified even slightly from AOSP - or only those OS's that don't include the Play Store and Google's apps.

If it's the former - then Google has been making "forks" from the very first Android phone, since it used proprietary Google apps in it. If it's latter, then it's nothing like Amazon, and more like Samsung, HTC, and so on, but with a more close to stock look.

By any definition, Google isn't doing anything "new" here - which means this article is pointless.

posted on 15 Oct 2013, 09:32

34. g2a5b0e (Posts: 2348; Member since: 08 Jun 2012)


The Nexus 10 actually has a 2560x1600 WQXGA resolution as opposed to the 2048x1536 QXGA mentioned in the article.

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