Vulkan is the exciting graphics API (application programming interface) that will help give mobile gaming a serious push forward, visuals-wise at least, bringing something more akin to home console quality graphics to the palm of your hand. Samsung has been supporting it on Galaxy devices starting with the S7 back in 2016, and Google has also added support for it in Nougat. We’ve already seen some pretty interesting tech demos of what Vulkan will be capable of when it’s fully fleshed out and developers get around to fully utilizing its powers — i.e. having much more direct access to the hardware, than what the current mobile graphics rendering API (OpenGL ES) allows for.
Support for Vulkan was added in Android, starting with 7.0 Nougat, but now there's a new version of the API out, v. 1.1, and Google is expected to start supporting it with Android P. Unfortunately, end users won't be able to reap the benefits immediately, as Vulkan 1.1 is more of a refinement of the programming interface aimed at allowing developers to better utilize the available hardware.That is, Vulkan 1.0 games won't miraculously start running and looking better, but as more developers adopt Vulkan 1.1, you'll start seeing mobile games that look better, perform better, and play better.
Support for Vulkan 1.1 is expected to be included in the Android P Developer Beta 2.