The patent is titled "Image capture using luminance and chrominance sensors" and it basically lays out plans to use three different sensors and three different lenses in order to vastly improve image capture quality and color reproduction in a mobile device. Each sensor has its own "lens train" to direct light towards it, then the image captured by each of the one luminance sensor and two chrominance sensors would be merged together to create the final image.
The layout that Apple has described should result in better image quality and also solves the problem of a "blind spot" that has come of other similar systems. This is accomplished by offsetting the two chrominance sensors so that the blind spots of each don't overlap.
We'd love to see the system in action, but as with many patents, there is no guarantee we will ever see it in a real device, let alone the devices Apple is set to announce in just over one month.