Unlike the Asus tablets, Microsoft would include a processor in the tablet and a separate one in the keyboard. The one in the tablet would be a low power processor, most likely an ARM chip, while the one in the keyboard would focus on performance and might be a speedier ARM chip or perhaps a ULV Intel chip. The Asus tablets have the same processing power whether connected to the keyboard dock or not and only brings additional power to the tablet when connected.
There is some speculation that the patent shows an operating system that also would adjust to docking. This would work by changing the UI from a Metro interface while in tablet mode to the traditional desktop UI as a laptop or desktop PC. The patent says that the device would change from a "resource-conserving computing environment" when in tablet mode to a "resource-intensive computing environment" in the other modes.