Chips reaching their limits as smartphones progress
Research and development of such technology incurs significant costs as well, leading to the idea of “Moore’s second law," which said that the cost of a semiconductor fabrication plant also increases exponentially over time.
The manufacturing process for these chip-sets is refined every time a new, more powerful, yet smaller chip design must be fabricated. Chip manufacturers often need to overcome some obstacles when designing a new fabricating a chip with more and more transistors on each wafer of silicon. The current photographic process that is currently used is not expected to be able to keep up with design demands in the coming years.
Manufacturers have been developing a new fabrication technique called extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, but the process is not ready for mass production at the anticipated demands. Current lithography technology uses light to create the images needed to fabricate the patterns of circuitry. However, the features in these patterns are getting so small, normal wavelengths of light are larger than the desired definition (think of trying to draw a thin line with a fat-tip marker).
EUV provides that “fine-tip,” but its development has presented obstacles for the manufacturers. Using these rays of light must be done in a vacuum, using mirrors. Without getting too technical, it requires precision, and current production rates are about 30% of what is expected to be needed.
In case EUV does not pan out, another approach is being looked at. Called directed self assembly (DSA), this method uses chemical combinations to build the superfine patterns on the chip. This may also assist in arresting the manufacturing costs in the future which one would hope means less expensive cost to build the final devices. As it is, it looks like a lot of companies are betting on EUV. High volume output with these new methods should be achieved sometime in 2014.
What does this mean for smartphones? As manufacturers of these devices create leaner designs, with more features built in, they demand smaller integrated circuits with more processing power. So, in a few years when you are eyeing that snazzy new 8-core, super-speed MHz device, you may have just a bit of appreciation for the microscopic work that went into the brain of that beast.
source: Wall Street Journal
1. MeoCao (unregistered)
so we'll move on to quantum technology.
5. SuperAndroidEvo (Posts: 4003; Member since: 15 Apr 2011)
YES GREAT READ! I love technology & the way everything moves make me even more curious on what devices my 4 year old son will have to play with when he finally hits 20 years old. lol
11. gaby1451 (Posts: 113; Member since: 30 Mar 2011)
Wow! So are you 20yrs old, or was that just a random number? If so, young dad ey? :-)
3. Lwazi_N (Posts: 205; Member since: 23 Jun 2011)
Maybe I should move from researching about nanocomposite membranes for water treatment and into this field... Looks kinda exciting! I think the more research that goes into the EUV lithography and DSA, the quicker we can catch up- maybe not at the rate we'd like but it would be a great leap forward.
4. neutralguy (Posts: 1152; Member since: 30 Apr 2012)
This is true. Now the next thing would be improving battery consumption in those superfast processors.
6. mafiaprinc3 (Posts: 319; Member since: 07 May 2012)
battery consumption is critical as with software optimization, i think they go hand in hand
7. Lawliet (Posts: 160; Member since: 02 Jul 2012)
Why don't we take the attention on making better chips, and change that to making better batteries ?
8. -box- (Posts: 3786; Member since: 04 Jan 2012)
Both are being done simultaneously. Look how much power is coming out of devices now: the Galaxy Note 2, which fits in your pocket, has a battery with more than 3000 mAh, which bests the battery in my 5-year-old laptop by 500mAh, and which doesn't fit in my pocket.
10. dragonstkdgirl (Posts: 144; Member since: 07 Apr 2012)
The Galaxy Note 2 may fit in your pocket, but sure doesn't fit in mine. :o(
9. OpTiMuS_BlAcK (Posts: 411; Member since: 04 May 2012)
Hopefully there will be Intel Atom with i7 features :D